Examining Merits and Demerits of Master's Virtual Programs of English from Students’ Perspectives in light of ‎Motivation and Self-Efficacy

Main Article Content

Zahra Fakour Rashid
Behzad Ghonsooly
Afsaneh Ghanizadeh


Introduction: Due to the current situation (coronavirus pandemic) as well as time and place ‎restrictions, the replacement of traditional classes with online courses is prevailing, and ‎instructors and learners rarely attend in a classroom. Thus, an unexpected immersion in virtual ‎learning revealed the advantages and disadvantages of virtual education. The present study ‎aimed to explore the merits and the demerits of the virtual master’s program of the English department ‎of universities regarding students' perspectives on motivation and self-efficacy.

Methodology: The researchers developed and validated an instrument ‎that measured online students' self-efficacy and motivation toward the virtual programs. Relying on the semi-structured interviews and open-ended ‎questions, the researchers developed a 21-item scale on a 5-point Likert scale. The designed scale distributed among 151 students from four universities in ‎Mashhad, Iran. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis as well as correlational analysis were performed to answer the research questions. The SEM model was used to explore the interrelationships among attitudes toward virtual ‎programs, self-efficacy, and motivation

Results: The obtained results indicate an acceptable level of reliability for the scale (0.82). The findings indicated that the independent variable of the virtual program of the ‎university positively had a direct relationship with the dependent variables of the study, which were motivation ‎and self-efficacy.

Conclusion: Based on the findings, it can be concluded that virtual education still needs new expertise and more developed skills from educational designers and programmers to students and instructors.

Article Details

How to Cite
Fakour Rashid, Z., Ghonsooly, B., & Ghanizadeh, A. (2023). Examining Merits and Demerits of Master’s Virtual Programs of English from Students’ Perspectives in light of ‎Motivation and Self-Efficacy. Journal of Contemporary Language Research, 2(2), 99–108. https://doi.org/10.58803/jclr.v2i2.25
Research Articles


Ames, C. (1984). Achievement attributions and self-instructions under competitive and individualistic goal structures. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76(3), 478-487. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.76.3.478

Ariew, R., & Ercetin, G. (2004). Exploring the potential of hypermedia annotations for second language reading. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 17(2), 237-259. https://doi.org/10.1080/0958822042000334253

Arkorful, V., & Abaidoo, N. (2015). The role of e-learning, advantages and disadvantages of its adoption in higher education. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, 12(1), 29-42. https://www.ijern.com/journal/2014/December-2014/34.pdf

Bates, R., & Khasawneh, S. (2007). Self-efficacy and college students’ perceptions and use of online learning systems. Computers in Human Behavior, 23(1), 175-191. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1016/j.chb.2004.04.004

Brouse, C. H., Basch, C. E., LeBlanc, M., McKnight, K. R., & Lei, T. (2010). College students’ academic motivation: Differences by gender, class, and source of payment. College Quarterly, 13(1), 1-10. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ EJ912093.pdf

Cascio, M., Botta, V., & Anzaldi, V. (2013). The role of self-efficacy and internal locus of control in online learning. Journal of e-learning and Knowledge Society, 9(3), 10-19. https://doi.org/10.20368/1971-8829/789

Chapelle, C. A., & Jamieson, J. (2008). Tips for teaching with CALL: Practical approaches to CALL. White Plains, NY: Pearson Education Inc

Chang, M. M., & Ho, C. M. (2009). Effects of locus of control and learner-control on web- based language learning. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 22(3), 189-206. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588220902920094

Chen, K. C., & Jang, S. J. (2010). Motivation in online learning: Testing a model of self- determination theory. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(4), 741-752. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2010.01.011

Chun, D. M., & Plass, J. L. (1997). Research on text comprehension in multimedia environments. Language Learning & Technology, 1(1), 60-81.

Cicekci, M. A., & Sadik, F. (2019). Teachers’ and students’ opinions about students’ attention problems during the lesson. Journal of Education and Learning, 8(6), 15-30. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1232893.pdf

Creswell, J. W. (2002). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative. Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ.

Ebner, M., & Holzinger, A. (2007). Successful implementation of user-centered game based learning in higher education: An example from civil engineering. Computers & Education, 49(3), 873-890. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2005.11.026

Geri, N., Winer, A., & Zaks, B. (2017). Challenging the six-minute myth of online video lectures: Can interactivity expand the attention span of learners?. Online Journal of Applied Knowledge Management, 5(1), 101-111.

Ghonsooly, B., Elahi, M., & Golparvar, S. E. (2012). General English university students’ self- efficacy and their achievement. Iranian EFL Journal, 8(3), 153-173.

Harasim, L. M. (1989). Online education: An environment for collaboration and intellectual amplification. In L. M. Harasim (Ed.), Online education: Perspectives on a new environment (pp. 39-66). Praeger Publish-ers.

Hegarty, M. (2010). Components of spatial intelligence. In B. H. Ross (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation: Advances in research and theory (pp. 265–297). Elsevier Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0079-7421(10)52007-3

Hills, H. (2003). Individual preferences in e-learning. Gower Publishing, Ltd.

Hsia, L. H., Huang, I., & Hwang, G. J. (2016). Effects of different online peer-feedback approaches on students' performance skills, motivation and self-efficacy in a dance course. Computers & Education, 96, 55-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu. 2016.02.004

Hung, M. L., Chou, C., Chen, C. H., & Own, Z. Y. (2010). Learner readiness for online learning: Scale development and student perceptions. Computers & Education, 55(3), 1080-1090. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2010.05.004

Kao, C. P., Tsai, C. C., & Shih, M. (2014). Development of a survey to measure self-efficacy and attitudes toward web-based professional development among elementary school teachers. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 17(4), 302-315.

Kellner, D. (2001). Cultural studies and social theory: A critical intervention. In G. Ritzer & B. Smart, Handbook of social theory (pp. 395-409). Sage. https://pages.gseis.ucla.edu/faculty/kellner/essays/culturalstudiessocialtheory.pdf

Lawless, K. A., & Brown, S. W. (1997). Multimedia learning environments: Issues of learner control and navigation. Instructional Science, 25(2), 117-131. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1002919531780

Liem, A. D., Lau, S., & Nie, Y. (2008). The role of self-efficacy, task value, and achievement goals in predicting learning strategies, task disengagement, peer relationship, and achievement outcome. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33(4), 486-512. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2007.08.001

Lomicka, L. (1998). To gloss or not to gloss: An investigation of reading comprehension online. Language Learning & Technology, 1(2), 41-50. https://scholarco mmons.sc.edu/ling_facpub/2/

Lucey, K. (2018). The effect of motivation on student persistence in online higher education: A phenomenological study of how adult learners experience motivation in a webbased distance learning environment Duquesne University, United States.

Mayer, R. E. (1997). Multimedia learning: Are we asking the right questions?. Educational Psychologist, 32(1), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1207/s153 26985ep3201_1

Moore, M. G. (1989). Editorial: Three types of interaction. American Journal of Distance Education, 3(2), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1080/08923648909526659

Nichols, J. D., & Miller, R. B. (1994). Cooperative learning and student motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 19(2), 167-178. https://doi.org/ 10.1006/ceps.1994.1015

Nim Park, C., & Son, J. B. (2009). Implementing computer-assisted language learning in the EFL classroom: Teachers’ perceptions and perspectives. International Journal of Pedagogies and Learning, 5(2), 80-101. https://doi.org/10.5172/ijpl.5.2.80

Osterlind, S. (2002). Constructing test items: Vol. 47. Evaluation in education and human services. Springer.

Rabin, E., Henderikx, M., Yoram, M. K., & Kalz, M. (2020). What are the barriers to learners’ satisfaction in MOOCs and what predicts them? The role of age, intention, self-regulation, self-efficacy and motivation. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 36(3), 119-131. https://doi.org/10.14742/ajet.5919

Rosegard, E., & Wilson, J. (2013). Capturing students’ attention: An empirical study. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 13(5), 1-20. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1017063.pdf

Sakar, A., & Ercetin, G. (2005). Effectiveness of hypermedia annotations for foreign language reading. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 21(1), 28-38. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2729.2005.00108.x

Selvi, K. (2010). Teachers’ competencies. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology, 7(1), 167-175. https://philpapers.org/rec/SELTC-4

Su, Y., & Klein, J. (2006). Effects of navigation tools and computer confidence on performance and attitudes in a hypermedia learning environment. Journal

of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 15(1), 87-106. https://www.learntechlib.org/primary/p/6118/

Ushioda, E. (2011). Motivating learners to speak as themselves. In G. Murray, X. Gao, & T. E. Lamb (Eds.), Identity, motivation and autonomy in language learning (pp. 11-25). Multilingual Matters.

Wang, S. L., & Wu, P. Y. (2008). The role of feedback and self-efficacy on web-based learning: The social cognitive perspective. Computers & Education, 51(4), 1589-1598. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2008.03.004

Wang, Q., Woo, H. L., Quek, C. L., Yang, Y., & Liu, M. (2012). Using the Facebook group as a learning management system: An exploratory study. British Journal of Educational Technology, 43(3), 428-438.

Walker, C. O., Greene, B. A., & Mansell, R. A. (2006). Identification with academics, intrinsic/extrinsic motivation, and self-efficacy as predictors of cognitive engagement. Learning and Individual Differences, 16(1), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2005.06.004

Yang, S. J. (2006). Context aware ubiquitous learning environments for peer-to-peer collaborative learning. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 9(1), 188-201. https://www.jstor.org/stable/jeductechsoci.9.1.188

Zhan, Z., & Mei, H. (2013). Academic self-concept and social presence in face-to-face and online learning: Perceptions and effects on students' learning achievement and satisfaction across environments. Computers & Education, 69, 131-138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2013.07.002