Preserving Linguistic Diversity in the Digital Age: A Scalable Model for Cultural Heritage Continuity

Main Article Content

James Hutson
Pace Ellsworth
Matt Ellsworth


In the face of the rapid erosion of both tangible and intangible cultural heritage globally, the urgency for effective, wide-ranging preservation methods has never been greater. Traditional approaches in cultural preservation often focus narrowly on specific niches, overlooking the broader cultural tapestry, particularly the preservation of everyday cultural elements. This article addresses this critical gap by advocating for a comprehensive, scalable model for cultural preservation that leverages machine learning and big data analytics. This model aims to document and archive a diverse range of cultural artifacts, encompassing both extraordinary and mundane aspects of heritage. A central issue highlighted in the article is the dominance of English, especially in popular culture, and its role in reshaping cognitive patterns, leading to the loss of traditional languages and cultures. This trend, favoring orality over literacy, amplifies the need for the preservation actions proposed. The article underscores the importance of establishing a more meaningful and comprehensive lingua franca as the first step in this endeavor. This approach is not just about safeguarding languages but also about preserving the nuanced ways in which different linguistic paradigms shape our understanding of the world. The paper explores how language evolution, translation nuances, and the unique perspectives inherent in various linguistic paradigms contribute to a rich cultural diversity. It also examines the impact of technology and social media on traditional cultural norms and the critical need for deliberate efforts to reinforce endangered languages and practices. The proposed model aims to bridge the gap between past and present cultural expressions, using technology to reinforce mother-tongue contexts and enhance the appreciation of diverse human identities and worldviews. Through this, the article presents a compelling case for a more inclusive and holistic approach to preserving the global tapestry of cultural heritage.

Article Details

How to Cite
Hutson, J., Ellsworth, P., & Ellsworth, M. (2024). Preserving Linguistic Diversity in the Digital Age: A Scalable Model for Cultural Heritage Continuity . Journal of Contemporary Language Research, 3(1), 10–19.
Research Articles


Aalberse, S., Backus, A., & Muysken, P. (2019). Heritage languages: A language contact approach. John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Ahlqvist, L., & Potter, B. B. (2023). Just a souvenir? Entangled identities within an early 20th century American Indian basket collection. Journal of Material Culture, 28(3), 479-498.

Alemohammad, S., Casco-Rodriguez, J., Luzi, L., Humayun, A. I., Babaei, H., LeJeune, D., Siahkoohi, A., & Baraniuk, R. G. (2023). Self-consuming generative models go mad. 37th Conference on

Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS 2023)

Alexandrova, N. S. (2023). The Disappearance of Languages and Natural Bilingualism. Polylinguality and Transcultural Practices, 20(3), 436-455.

Anderson, R. (1999). Impact of first language loss on grammar in a bilingual child. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 21(1), 4-16.

Andleeb, N., Asgher, M., & Zimi, R. (2023). Exploration of speaking multiple language’’ effect on cognitive flexibility and problem-solving skills. Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 11(2), 837-845.

Basu, A., Paul, S., Ghosh, S., Das, S., Chanda, B., Bhagvati, C., & Snasel, V. (2023). Digital Restoration of Cultural Heritage with Data-driven Computing: A Survey. IEEE Access.

Baugh, A., & Cable, T. (1993). A history of the English language. Routledge, London.

Benson, C. (2010). How multilingual African contexts are pushing educational research and practice in new directions. Language and Education, 24(4), 323-336.

Bers, M. U. (2022). Beyond coding: How children learn human values through programming. MIT Press.

Blackledge, A., Creese, A., Arnaut, K., Blommaert, J., Rampton, B., & Spotti, M. (2018). Language and superdiversity. The Routledge handbook

of language and superdiversity. Routledge, London.

Bromham, L., Dinnage, R., Skirgård, H., Ritchie, A., Cardillo, M., Meakins, F., Greenhill, S., & Hua, X. (2022). Global predictors of language endangerment and the future of linguistic diversity. Nature Ecology & Evolution, 6(2), 163-173.

Centeno, J. G. (2009, August). Issues and principles in service delivery to communicatively impaired minority bilingual adults in neurorehabilitation. Seminars in Speech and Language, 30(3): 139-152.

Chang, Y., Wang, X., Wang, J., Wu, Y., Yang, L., Zhu, K., … & Xie, X. (2023). A survey on evaluation of large language models. ACM Transactions on Intelligent Systems and Technology.

Chen, G., Zhang, Y., Chen, N. S., & Fan, Z. (2023). Context-aware ubiquitous learning in science museum with ibeacon technology. In J. M., Spector, B. B., Lockee, & M. D. Childress, (Eds.), Learning, design, and technology (pp. 3369-3392). Springer, Cham.

Collette, V., & Kennedy, W. (2023). A concise dictionary of Nakoda (Assiniboine). University of Nebraska Press.

Cruz, M. (2024). Exploring the integration of artificial intelligence generative tools in teaching Hispano-American literature: A student-centric approach. In INTED2024 Proceedings (pp. 5717-5727). IATED.

Crystal, D. (2003). English as a global language. Cambridge university press.

Dang, Q., Ma, F., Yuan, Q., Fu, Y., Chen, K., Zhang, Z., Lu, C., & Guo, T. (2023). Processing negative emotion in two languages of bilinguals: Accommodation and assimilation of the neural pathways based on a meta-analysis. Cerebral Cortex, 33(13), 8352–8367.

Diamond, J. (2010). The benefits of multilingualism. Science, 330(6002), 332-333.

Dildora, U., & Tukhtakhodjayeva, Z. T. (2024). The socio-cultural characteristics of formulaic language and Uzbeck languages. Journal of new century innovations, 48(2), 21-23.

Doiz, A., Lasagabaster, D., & Sierra, J. M. (2014). Making connections between theory and practice. Motivation and foreign language learning: From theory to practice Language Learning & Language Teaching 40. (pp. 177-183).

El-Gabalawi, F., & Khouzam, H. (2009). The effect of mental illness on language regression to the mother tongue in bilingual teenagers. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 21(1), 88-91.

Gallo, F., & Abutalebi, J. (2023). The unique role of bilingualism among cognitive reserve-enhancing factors. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 1-8.

Gannie, R. R. (2023). Destruction and resiliency: Decolonizing settler knowledge in native ersonaln literature through the peoplehood matrix [Doctoral dissertation, University of Denver, United States].

Gladkoff, S., Erofeev, G., Han, L., & Nenadic, G. (2023). Predicting Perfect Quality Segments in MT Output with Fine-Tuned OpenAI LLM: Is it possible to capture editing distance patterns from historical data?. arXiv preprint arXiv:2308.00158.

Govia, L. (2020). Coproduction, ethics and artificial intelligence: A perspective from cultural anthropology. Journal of Digital Social Research, 2(3), 42-64.

Graddol, D. (1997). The future of English?: A guide to forecasting the popularity of the English language in the 21st century. British Council.

Grohmann, K. K., Kambanaros, M., Leivada, E., & Rowe, C. (2016). A developmental approach to diglossia: bilectalism on a gradient scale of linguality. Poznan Studies in Contemporary Linguistics, 52(4), 629-662.

Gu, M. M., Chiu, M. M., & Li, J. Z. (2023). Adult ethnic minoritie’’ mainstream language proficiency: cultural knowledge, cultural identification, and language use attitudes. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 1-21.

Gulya, J. (2023). Rebranding Originality for the Age of AI. International Journal of Emerging and Disruptive Innovation in Education: VISIONARIUM, 1(1), 5.

Hale, S. A. (2015, April). Cross-language Wikipedia editing of ersonaa, erson. In Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 183-192).

Hinkel, E. (2001). Why English passive is difficult to teach (and learn). New perspectives on grammar teaching in second language classrooms (pp. 245-270). Routledge.

Hollebeke, I., Dekeyser, G. N., Caira, T., Agirdag, O., & Struys, E. (2023). Cherishing the heritage language: Predictors of parental heritage language maintenance efforts. International Journal of Bilingualism, 27(6), 925-941.

Hutson, J., Ellsworth, P., Ellsworth, M., & Ntungirimana, J. B. (2023). Digitizing the Cultural Capital: Harnessing Digital Humanities for Heritage Preservation in Bujumbura, Burundi. Advances in Social Sciences and Management, 1(11).

Jerome, C., Perry, E. J., & Ting, S. H. (2022). Malaysian pop music in the minority language: A tool for forging unity and a common identity?. International Journal of Social Science Research, 4(1), 401-413.

Kandler, A., & Unger, R. (2023). Modeling language shift. In A. Bunde, J. Caro, C. Chmelik, J. Kärger, & G. Vogl (Eds.), Diffusive spreading in nature, technology and society (pp. 365-387). Springer. Cham.

Kazanas, S. A., & Altarriba, J. (2012). Multilingualism and memory. The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics Wiley (pp. 1-7).

Kirk, H. R., Vidgen, B., Röttger, P., & Hale, S. A. (2023). Personalisation within bounds: A risk taxonomy and policy framework for the alignment of large language models with ersonalizedd feedback. arXiv preprint arXiv:2303.05453.

Koch, M. J., Greve, W., & Kersten, K. (2023). Extending the cognitive advantage hypothesis: a conceptual replication study of the relationship between multilingualism and flexible goal adjustment. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 1-15.

Konieczny, P., & Lewoniewski, W. (2023). Measuring Americanization: A global quantitative study of interest in American topics on Wikipedia. arXiv preprint arXiv:2307.14401.

Kroch, A., Taylor, A., & Ringe, D. (2000). The Middle English verb-second constraint. Textual Parameters in Older Languages, 353-392.

Kulko, R. D., Pletl, A., Mempel, H., Wahl, F., & Elser, B. (2023). OpenVNT: An open platform for VIS-NIR technology. Sensors, 23(6), 3151.

Kuzmina, E., Goral, M., Norvik, M., & Weekes, B. S. (2019). What influences language impairment in bilingual aphasia? A meta-analytic review. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 445. fpsyg.2019.00445

Lai, V. D., Ngo, N. T., Veyseh, A. P. B., Man, H., Dernoncourt, F., Bui, T., & Nguyen, T. H. (2023). Chat GPT beyond English: Towards a comprehensive evaluation of large language models in multilingual learning. arXiv preprint arXiv:2304.05613.

Lanza, E., & Svendsen, B. A. (2007). Tell me who your friends are and I might be able to tell you what language (s) you speak: Social network analysis, multilingualism, and identity. International Journal of Bilingualism, 11(3), 275-300.

Lucia, A. (2023). Flooding the Web: Absence-presence and the media strategies of Nithyananda’s digital empire. Gurus and media:

Sound, image, machine, text and the digital, 271-298.

MacSwan, J. (2017). A multilingual perspective on translanguaging. American Educational Research Journal, 54(1), 167-201.

Madigan, T. (2023). Cultural syntax and the rules of meaning-making: A new paradigm for the interpretation of culture. In A. Cossu & J. Fontdevila (Eds.), Interpretive sociology and the semiotic

imagination (pp. 118-139). Bristol University Press.

Makhmudov, K. (2023). Bridging cultures through English language education: a comprehensive model for intercultural communication competence development. ISJ Theoretical & Applied Science, 3(119), 204-208.

Martin, C., Woods, B., & Williams, S. (2019). Language and culture in the caregiving of people with dementia in care homes-what are the implications for well-being? A scoping review with a Welsh perspective. Journal of cross-cultural gerontology, 34, 67-114.

Morgenstern, A., & Boutet, D. (2024). The 0rchestration of bodies and artifacts in French family dinners. In Diachronic Perspectives on Embodiment and Technology (pp. 111-130). Springer, Cham.

Muhalim, M. (2023). Negotiating religious discourses in English language teaching: Reorienting and reframing dominant English ideologies. Changing English, 30(3), 209-222. 1358684X.2023.2217424

Myers-Scotton, C. (2003). Code-switching: Evidence of both flexibility and rigidity in language. In J. M. Dewaele, A. Housen, &W. Li (Eds.), Multilingual Matters (pp. 189-203). Multilingual Matters, Bristol.

Ng, B. C., & Wigglesworth, G. (2007). Bilingualism: An advanced resource book. Taylor & Francis.

Obler, L. K., Park, Y., Gitterman, M. R., & Goral, M. (2012). The study of bilingual aphasia: The questions addressed. In M. R. Gitterman, M. Goral, & L. K. Obler, Aspects of Multilingual Aphasia (pp. 3-15). Multilingual Matters, Bristol.

Ochieng, V. O., & Waithanji Ngware, M. (2023). Adoption of education technologies for learning during COVID-19 pandemic: The experiences of marginalized and vulnerable learner populations in Kenya. International Journal of Educational Reform, 32(4), 464-487.

Park, S. (2023). Multilingualism, social inequality, and the need for a universal language. Journal of Universal Language, 24(1), 77-93.

Parkinson, B. (2023). Cross-Cultural Calibration of Words and Emotions: Referential, Constructionist, and Pragmatic Perspectives. Emotion Review, 15(4), 348-362.

Phillipson, R. (1992). Linguistic imperialism. Oxford University Press.

Ramesh, K., Sitaram, S., & Choudhury, M. (2023). Fairness in language models beyond English: Gaps and challenges. arXiv preprint arXiv:2302.12578.

Rataj, K., Kakuba, P., Mandera, P., & van Heuven, W. J. (2023). Establishing semantic relatedness through ratings, reaction times, and semantic vectors: A database in Polish. Plos One, 18(4), e0284801.

Salomone, R., & Salomone, R. C. (2022). The rise of English: Global politics and the power of language. Oxford University Press.

Savaya, R., Berger, R., Ronen, T., & Roziner, I. (2023). Social alienation and psychological distress in sraeli adolescents. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 40(3), 395-408.

Sefotho, M., Charamba, E., & Quintero, G. (2023). Translingualism across languages: A textual analysis of languages interaction. Education Innovation Diversity, 1(6), 16-30.

Sevinç, Y. (2022). Mindsets and family language pressure: language or anxiety transmission across generations?. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 43(9), 874-890. 01434632.2022.2038614

Sharma, R., Morwal, S., & Agarwal, B. (2021). Entity-extraction using hybrid deep-learning approach for Hindi text. International Journal of Cognitive Informatics and Natural Intelligence, 15(3), 1-11.

Shcherbakova, O., Michaelis, S. M., Haynie, H. J., Passmore, S., Gast, V., Gray, R. D., Greenhill S. J., Blasi, D., & Skirgård, H. (2023). Societies of strangers do not speak grammatically simpler languages. Science Advances, 1-37.

Skirgård, H., Haynie, H. J., Blasi, D. E., Hammarström, H., Collins, J., Latarche, J. J., … & Gray, R. D. (2023). Grambank reveals the importance of genealogical constraints on linguistic diversity and highlights the impact of language loss. Science Advances, 9(16), 6175.

Skutnabb-Kangas, T. (2013). Linguistic genocide in education--or worldwide diversity and human rights?. Routledge.

Szubko-Sitarek, W. (2015). Multilingual lexical recognition in the mental lexicon of third language users. Heidelberg: Springer.

Tankosić, A., & Dovchin, S. (2023). The impact of social media in the sociolinguistic practices of the peripheral post-socialist contexts. International Journal of Multilingualism, 20(3), 869-890.

Torres-Zúñiga, L., & Söğüt, S. (2024). Using Intercultural Virtual Exchange to Promote Critical Pedagogy Practices of English Language Teachers. International Perspectives on Critical English Language Teacher Education: Theory and Practice, 217.

Van der Worp, K., Cenoz, J., & Gorter, D. (2017). From bilingualism to multilingualism in the workplace: The case of the Basque

autonomous community. Language Policy, 16, 407-432.

Wang, P. J. (2024). Exploring AI’s role in bilingual Bible education: Overcoming language barriers- A case study of sixth grade bible story reading at Sankuang Elementary School in New Taipei City. In INTED2024 Proceedings (pp. 1671-1680). IATED.

Wei, L. (2014). Translanguaging knowledge and identity in complementary classrooms for multilingual minority ethnic children. Classroom Discourse, 5(2), 158-175.

Zhang, M., Jiang, G., Liu, S., Chen, J., & Zhang, M. (2024). LLM–Assisted Data Augmentation for Chinese Dialogue–Level Dependency Parsing. Computational Linguistics, 1-24.

Zhang, J., Ji, X., Zhao, Z., Hei, X., & Choo, K. K. R. (2023). Ethical considerations and policy implications for large language models: guiding responsible development and deployment. arXiv preprint arXiv:2308.02678.

Zhang, A., & Zhu, X. (2023). Analysis of English translation of corpus based on blockchain. International Journal of Web-Based Learning and Teaching Technologies, 18(2), 1-14.