Does Digital Literacy Provide Evidence for Iranian EFL Learners’ Cooperative Learning in Online Classrooms

Main Article Content

Zeinab Abedi
Mona Tabatabaee-Yazdi


Introduction: Technology can revolutionize how members of cooperative groups interact and work with others. Since digital literacy and cooperative skills are necessary for teachers’ success and students’ achievement, the current research aimed to find the relationship between EFL learners’ digital literacy and their attitude towards cooperative learning in online classes.

Methodology: The present research followed a quantitative study using a correlational research design to investigate the relationship between Iranian EFL learners’ digital literacy and their attitudes toward cooperative learning in online classrooms. In this study, 210 participants, who were all Iranian EFL students in different fields of study and from different cities, were invited to participate. They were from both genders and of different ages. For data collection, the researcher used a Google form link sent via social media and students were asked to complete the questionnaires online. The responses from participants were collected and analyzed using SPSS. Mean, standard deviation, multiple linear regression, and independent sample t-tests were run to analyze the obtained data and check whether the results were significant.

Results:  The findings of the study indicated a significant relationship between the two variables, meaning that learners could learn and collaborate better with technology. Besides, the study results showed that the second component of digital literacy (technical dimension), as the best predictor, significantly predicts a 34% variance in learners’ attitudes toward cooperative learning. Moreover, there was no significant difference between men and women in digital literacy and their attitudes toward cooperative learning.

Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that the participants had a favorable view of using digital literacy in their attitude toward cooperative learning. Therefore, there is a need to change the English classroom curriculum and employ a proper syllabus to integrate digital literacy.

Article Details

How to Cite
Abedi, Z., & Tabatabaee-Yazdi, M. (2023). Does Digital Literacy Provide Evidence for Iranian EFL Learners’ Cooperative Learning in Online Classrooms . Journal of Contemporary Language Research, 2(3), 158–166.
Research Articles


Abedi, P., Namaziandost, E., & Akbari, S. (2019). The impact of flipped classroom instruction on Iranian upper-intermediate EFL learners’ writing skill. English Literature and Language Review, 5(9), 164-172.

Alghamdy, R. Z. (2019). EFL learners’ reflections on cooperative learning: Issues of implementation. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 9(3), 271-277.

Atkinson, D. (2003). L2 writing in the post-process era: Introduction. Journal of Second Language Writing, 12(1), 3-15.

Bagherpour N, Hajirostam S., & Farjami, A. (2022). The impact of digital games on students’ willingness to communicate in a flipped classroom context. Journal of Contemporary Language Research, 1(2), 96-104.

Blau, I., Shamir-Inbal, T., & Avdiel, O. (2020). How does the pedagogical design of a technology-enhanced collaborative academic course promote digital literacies, self-regulation, and perceived learning of students? The Internet and Higher Education, 45, 100722.

Botha, W. (2021). Cooperative Learning: Building Cooperative skills and attitudes in Learners. Academia Letters. 10.20935/al2843

Buchs, C., Filippou, D., Pulfrey, C., & Volpé, Y. (2017). Challenges for cooperative learning implementation: Reports from elementary school teachers. Journal of Education for Teaching, 43(3), 296-306.

Chen, M., & Squires, D. (2007). Influence of cooperative learning beliefs on classroom practices in Chinese English as foreign language teachers. The International Journal of Learning, 12(4), 101-110.

Cheng, R. T. J. (2019). Perception of peer feedback and feedback quality in ESL graduate writing. Asian EFL Journal, 21(2), 7-26.

Çolak, E. (2015). The effect of cooperative learning on the learning approaches of students with different learning styles. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 15(59), 17-34.

Din, I., Xue, M. C., Abdullah, Ali, S., Shah, T., Ilyas, A., & Bendall, M. (2017). Role of information & communication technology (ICT) and e-governance in health sector of Pakistan: A case study of Peshawar. Cogent Social Sciences, 3(1), 1308051.

Donato, R. (1994). Collective scaffolding in second language learning. In J. P. Lantolf & G. Appel (Eds.). Vygotskian approaches to second language research, (pp. 33-56). Ablex Press.

Eryansyah, E., Petrus, I., Indrawati, S., & Ernalida, E. (2020). Pre-service EFL teachers’ digital literacy and factors affecting digital literacy development. Indonesian Research Journal in Education (IRJE), 4(2), 402-412.

Eryansyah, E., Erlina, E., Fiftinova, F., & Nurweni, A. (2019). EFL students’ needs of digital literacy to meet the demands of 21st century skills. Indonesian Research Journal in Education, 3(2), 442-460. DOI:

Ferrari, A. (2012). Digital competence in practice: An analysis of frameworks. Publications Office of the European Union.

Gillies, R. M, & Boyle, M. (2009). Teachers’ reflection on cooperative learning: Issues of implementation. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26, 933-940.

Gonzales, W. D. W., & Torres, P. (2015). Looking at CIRC through quantitative lenses: Can it improve the reading comprehension of Filipino ESL learners? Philippine ESL Journal, 15(1), 67-98.

Harianingsih, I., Jusoh, Z., & Nur, R. M. (2021). From face-to-face to digital learning; seen from EFL student’s lenses enrolled in online group work. International Journal of English and Applied Linguistics (IJEAL), 1(3), 258-267.

He, X., & Wray, D. (2017). Digital literacies in a Chinese secondary school. Handbook on digital learning for K-12 schools. Springer.

Heidari, N., & Tabatabaee-Yazdi, M. (2021). Digital literacy skills among Iranian EFL teachers and students. Journal of Research in Techno-based Language Education, 1(1), 22-34.

Hein, G. E. (1991). Constructivist learning theory. Proceedings of Developing Museum Exhibitions for Lifelong Learning Conference. Retrieved from:

Hennebry, M, L., & Fordyce, K. (2018). Cooperative learning on an international masters, Higher Education Research & Development, 37(2), 270-284.

Hulley, S., Cummings, S., Browner, W., Grady, D., & Newman, T. (2013). Designing clinical research (vol. 4th). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Jacobs, G. M., & Ivone, F. M. (2020). Infusing cooperative learning in distance education. TESL-EJ, 24(1), 1-15.

Jacobs, G. M., McCafferty, S. G., & Iddings, A. C. D. (Eds.). (2006). Cooperative learning and second language teaching. Cambridge University Press.

Le, H., Janssen, J., & Wubbels, T. (2018). Collaborative learning practices: Teacher and student perceived obstacles to effective student collaboration. Cambridge Journal of Education, 48(1), 103-122.

Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., & Holubec, E. J. (2013). Cooperation in the classroom. Interaction book company.

Karim, K. (2018). Cooperative language learning. The TESOL Encyclopedia of English Language Teaching, 1-5. 784235.eelt0172

Kim, M., & Choi, D. (2018). Development of youth digital citizenship scale and implication foreducational setting. Educational Technology & Society, 21(1), 155-171.

Kim, K. J., Liu, S., & Bonk, C. J. (2005). Online MBA students’ perceptions of online learning: Benefits, challenges, and suggestions. Internet and Higher Education, 8(4), 335–344.

Laal, M., & Ghodsi, S. M. (2012). Benefits of collaborative learning. Procedia –Social and Behavioral Sciences, 31(1), 486-490.

Law, N., Woo, D., & Wong, G. (2018). A global framework of reference on digital literacy for indicator 4.4.2. UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 51(1), 1-146.

Lumpe, A. T., Haney, J. J., & Czerniak, C. M. (1998). Science teacher beliefs and intentions regarding the use of cooperative learning. School Science and Mathematics, 98(3), 123-135.

Luo, X. (2018). An empirical study of cooperative learning in overcoming reticence in college English classroom. Overseas English, 22(1), 250-252.

Marcoulides, G. A., & Saunders, C. (2006). Editor’s comments: PLS: A silver bullet. MIS Quarterly, 3(2), 3-6.

Mardiah, H. (2022). Integrating digital literacy into English as a foreign language (EFL) class: A cooperativel learning approach. ALINEA: Jurnal Bahasa, Sastra dan Pengajarannya, 2(2), 295-304.

McDougall, J., Readman, M., & Wilkinson, P. (2018). The uses of digital literacy. Learning, Media and Technology, 43(3), 263-279.

McLeish, K. (2009). Attitude of students toward cooperative learning methods at knox community college: A descriptive study [Unpublished master’s thesis]. University of Technology.

Ng, W. (2012). Can we teach digital natives’ digital literacy? Computers & Education, 59(3), 1065-1078. 2012.04.016

Nokes-Malach, T. J., Richey, J. E., & Gadgil, S. (2015). When is it better to learn together? Insights from research on collaborative learning. Educational Psychology Review, 27(4), 645-656.

Pan, C. Y., & Wu, H. Y. (2013). The cooperative learning effects on English reading comprehension and learning motivation of EFL freshmen. English Language Teaching, 6(5), 13-27.

Polizzi, G. (2020). Digital literacy and the national curriculum for England: Learning from how the experts engage with and evaluate online content. Computers & Education, 152,103859.

Roche, T. (2017). Assessing the role of digital literacy in English for academic purposes university pathway programs. Journal of Academic Language and Learning, 11(1), 71-87.

Meena, R. S. (2020). The effect of cooperative learning strategies in the enhancement of EFL learners’ speaking skills. Asian EFL

Journal Research Articles, 27(2.3), 144-171.

Shakibaei, G., Shahamat, F., & Namaziandost, E. (2019). The effect of using authentic texts on Iranian EFL learners’ incidental vocabulary learning: The case of English newspaper. International Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Translation, 2(5), 422-432.

Sharp, L. A. (2018). Collaborative digital literacy practices among adult learners: Levels of confidence and perceptions of importance. International Journal of Instruction, 11(1), 153-166.

Silalahi, T. F., & Hutauruk, A. F. (2020). The application of cooperative learning model during online learning in the pandemic period. Budapest International Research and Critics Institute (BIRCI-Journal),3(3),1683-1691.

Slavin, R.E., & Cooper, R. (1999). Improving intergroup relations: Lessons learned from cooperative learning programs. Journal of Social Issues, 55, 647-663.

Soroya, S. H., & Ameen, K. (2020). Subject-based reading behavior differences of young adults under emerging digital paradigm. Libri, 70(2), 169-79.

Storch, N. (2005). Collaborative writing: Product, process, and students’ reflections. Journal of Second Language Writing, 14(3), 153-173.

Völlinger, V. A., & Supanc, M. (2019). Student teachers’ attitudes towards cooperative learning in inclusive education. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 35(3), 727-749.

Wang, Y., & Ryan, J. (2023). The complexity of control shift for learner autonomy: A mixed-method case study of Chinese EFL teachers’ practice and cognition. Language Teaching Research, 27(3), 518-543.

Yalçınkaya, B., & Cibaroğlu, M. O. (2019). Investigation of digital citizenship perception: An empirical evaluation. Business & Management

Studies: An International Journal, 7(4), 1188-1208.

Ziafar, M., & Namaziandost, E. (2019). Linguistics, SLA and lexicon as the unit of language. International Journal of Linguistics, Literature, and Translation, 2(5), 245-250.